Wednesday, March 7, 2012

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12-03-07 US Attorney General Eric Holder on Targeted Killings...

Part of a series of delusional speeches by AG Eric Holder on the rule of law...


Wall Street JournalKey Excerpts from Holder�s Speech on Targeted Killing


Associated Press
Attorney General Eric Holder
Attorney General Eric Holder defended the Obama administration�s use of lethal force on suspected terrorists in a speech this afternoon in Chicago. Holder spent a good portion of it explaining the administration�s legal rationale for targeting a U.S. citizen abroad, as it did in the operation that killed the New Mexico-born Anwar al-Awlaki, an alleged al-Qaeda operative in Yemen.

Below are excerpts from his prepared remarks.
In response to the attacks perpetrated � and the continuing threat posed � by al Qaeda, the Taliban, and associated forces, Congress has authorized the President to use all necessary and appropriate force against those groups.  Because the United States is in an armed conflict, we are authorized to take action against enemy belligerents under international law.  The Constitution empowers the President to protect the nation from any imminent threat of violent attack.  And international law recognizes the inherent right of national self-defense.  None of this is changed by the fact that we are not in a conventional war.
Our legal authority is not limited to the battlefields in Afghanistan.  Indeed, neither Congress nor our federal courts has limited the geographic scope of our ability to use force to the current conflict in Afghanistan.  We are at war with a stateless enemy, prone to shifting operations from country to country.  Over the last three years alone, al Qaeda and its associates have directed several attacks � fortunately, unsuccessful � against us from countries other than Afghanistan.  Our government has both a responsibility and a right to protect this nation and its people from such threats.

[I]t is entirely lawful � under both United States law and applicable law of war principles � to target specific senior operational leaders of al Qaeda and associated forces.  This is not a novel concept.  In fact, during World War II, the United States tracked the plane flying Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto � the commander of Japanese forces in the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway � and shot it down specifically because he was on board.  As I explained to the Senate Judiciary Committee following the operation that killed Osama bin Laden, the same rules apply today.
Some have called such operations �assassinations.�  They are not, and the use of that loaded term is misplaced.  Assassinations are unlawful killings.  Here, for the reasons I have given, the U.S. government�s use of lethal force in self defense against a leader of al Qaeda or an associated force who presents an imminent threat of violent attack would not be unlawful � and therefore would not violate the Executive Order banning assassination or criminal statutes.

Let me be clear:  an operation using lethal force in a foreign country, targeted against a U.S. citizen who is a senior operational leader of al Qaeda or associated forces, and who is actively engaged in planning to kill Americans, would be lawful at least in the following circumstances: First, the U.S. government has determined, after a thorough and careful review, that the individual poses an imminent threat of violent attack against the United States; second, capture is not feasible; and third, the operation would be conducted in a manner consistent with applicable law of war principles.

The evaluation of whether an individual presents an �imminent threat� incorporates considerations of the relevant window of opportunity to act, the possible harm that missing the window would cause to civilians, and the likelihood of heading off future disastrous attacks against the United States.  As we learned on 9/11, al Qaeda has demonstrated the ability to strike with little or no notice � and to cause devastating casualties.  Its leaders are continually planning attacks against the United States, and they do not behave like a traditional military � wearing uniforms, carrying arms openly, or massing forces in preparation for an attack.  Given these facts, the Constitution does not require the President to delay action until some theoretical end-stage of planning � when the precise time, place, and manner of an attack become clear.  Such a requirement would create an unacceptably high risk that our efforts would fail, and that Americans would be killed.
Whether the capture of a U.S. citizen terrorist is feasible is a fact-specific, and potentially time-sensitive, question.  It may depend on, among other things, whether capture can be accomplished in the window of time available to prevent an attack and without undue risk to civilians or to U.S. personnel.  Given the nature of how terrorists act and where they tend to hide, it may not always be feasible to capture a United States citizen terrorist who presents an imminent threat of violent attack.  In that case, our government has the clear authority to defend the United States with lethal force.
Of course, any such use of lethal force by the United States will comply with the four fundamental law of war principles governing the use of force.  The principle of necessity requires that the target have definite military value.  The principle of distinction requires that only lawful targets � such as combatants, civilians directly participating in hostilities, and military objectives � may be targeted intentionally.  Under the principle of proportionality, the anticipated collateral damage must not be excessive in relation to the anticipated military advantage.  Finally, the principle of humanity requires us to use weapons that will not inflict unnecessary suffering.
These principles do not forbid the use of stealth or technologically advanced weapons.  In fact, the use of advanced weapons may help to ensure that the best intelligence is available for planning and carrying out operations, and that the risk of civilian casualties can be minimized or avoided altogether.
Some have argued that the President is required to get permission from a federal court before taking action against a United States citizen who is a senior operational leader of al Qaeda or associated forces.  This is simply not accurate. �Due process� and �judicial process� are not one and the same, particularly when it comes to national security. The Constitution guarantees due process, not judicial process.

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